The Emancipation Group Research Bibliography

Primary Sources 
Secondary Sources 
  • “Boston’s Crusade Against Slavery.” Harvard University. Online exhibition (2018). Catalog entry.
  • Braddock, Alan. “Eakins, Race, and Ethnographic Ambivalence.” Winterthur Portfolio vol. 33, no. 2/3 (Summer-Autumn 1998): 135-161.
  • Craven, Wayne. “Thomas Ball and the Emancipation Group.” Elvehjem Art Center Bulletin 1976-1977. (1977): 43-53.
  • Harnish, Katherine B. “Spotlight Essay: Thomas Ball.” Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum.
  • Hatt, Michael. “’Making a Man of Him’: Masculinity and the Black Body in Mid-Nineteenth-Century American Sculpture,” in Race-ing Art History: Critical Readings in Race and Art History. Edited by Kymberly N. Pinder. New York: Routledge, 2002: 191-213.
  • Holzer, Harold. “Picturing Freedom: The Emancipation Proclamation in Art Iconography, and Memory,” in The Emancipation Proclamation: Three Views. Louisiana State University Press, 2006.
  • Kinsey, Joni L. Catalog entry in A Gallery of Modern Art at Washington University in St. Louis. Edited by Jane E. Neidhardt. St. Louis: Washington University Gallery of Art, 1994.
  • A Marvellous Repose: American Neo-Classical Sculpture, 1825-1876. Hirschl & Adler Galleries, 1997: 43.
  • Nelson, Charmaine A. “Male or Man? The Politics of Emancipation in the Neoclassical Imaginary,” in A Companion to American Art. Edited by John Davis, Jennifer A. Greenhill, and Jason D. LaFountain. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
  • Otten, Liam. “Of friendship and freedom,” The Source. May 6, 2016. 
  • Rechtenwald, Miranda. “The Life of Archer Alexander: A Story of Freedom.” The Confluence (Fall/Winter 2014): 55-59.
  • Savage, Kirk. “The Black Man at Lincoln’s Feet: Archer Alexander and the problem of emancipation,” Ideas Blog, July 12, 2020.
  • “Molding Emancipation: John Quincy Adams Ward’s “The Freedman” and the Meaning of the Civil War.” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies vol. 27, no. 1, Terrain of Freedom: American Art and the Civil War (2001): 26-39, 101.
  • Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.
  • Thomas, Joseph M. “The Post-Abolitionist’s Narrative: William Greenleaf Eliot’s The Story of Archer Alexander.” The New England Quarterly vol. 73, no. 3 (September 2000): 463-481.